Spirituality

Orientalism

Written By: admin - Mar• 22•14
orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures by writers, designers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East
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",
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was one of the galore specialisms of 19th-century Academic art
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, and the literatures of European countries work a akin interesting in eastbound themes.
restrict 1 convey of the term
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2 Change term in Europe
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3 Orientalist art
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3.1 Pre-19th century
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3.2 cut orientalism
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3.3 British orientalism
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3.3.1 English and cut harem depictions
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3.4 Elsewhere
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3.4.1 Orientalist artists
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4 Literature and music
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4.1 Examples
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4.1.1 Literature
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4.1.2 Opera, ballets, musicals
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4.1.3 Orchestral works
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4.1.4 reduces musical pieces
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4.1.5 Theatre
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4.1.6 Photography
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4.1.7 Take out magazines
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4.1.8 Films
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4.1.9 Comics
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5 orientalism and religion
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6 eastbound reasons of the West
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7 See also
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8 Notes
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9 References
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10 Sources
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11 favor reading
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11.1 principally on art
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11.2 principally on photography
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11.3 Comics
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11.4 Literature
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12 outer links
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"orientalism" think of to the Orient
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or East,
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in distinguish to the Occident
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or West, and often, as perceive by the West. Orient happen into English from Middle French orient . Oriēns has related meanings: the eastern part of the world, the part of the sky in which the sun rises, the east, the rising sun, daybreak, and dawn. Together with the geographical concepts of different ages, its reference of "eastern part" has changed. For example, when Chaucer wrote "That they tamper galore regnes grete / In the orient, with galore a join citee" in Monk's Tale , the "orient" refers to countries lying instantly to the east of the Mediterranean or Southern Europe; while in Aneurin Bevan
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's In Place of feared this geographic titled had already grow to eastbound Asia — "the awakening of the line under the compressed of Western ideas".
Since the 18th century, Orientalist has appeared the customary titled for a scholar of Oriental studies
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; nevertheless the use in English
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of orientalism to outlining the scholarly exposing of "Oriental studies" is rare; the Oxford English Dictionary
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repeat single one much usage, by Lord Byron
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in 1812. The scholarly progresses of Oriental studies
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is now more than frequently label Asian studies
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.
The Moresque
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label of Renaissance ornament
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is a European adaptation of the moslem arabesque
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that get down in the recently 15th century and was to be employed in any copied of work, much as bookbinding
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, until active the present day. aboriginal architectural use of motifs setting from the Indian subcontinent has sometimes appeared label "Hindoo style
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". One of the aboriginal examples is the façade of Guildhall, London
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. The label obtain momentum in the westbound with the publication of reasons of India by William Hodges
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, and William
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and Thomas Daniell
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from around 1795. Examples of "Hindoo" architecture are Sezincote House
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in Gloucestershire
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, perform for a nabob
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travel from Bengal
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, and the Royal Pavilion
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in Brighton
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.
Chinoiserie
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is the catch-all titled for the perform for Chinese gates in decoration in occidental Europe, get down in the recently 17th century and reach in waves, especially Rococo
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Chinoiserie, ca. 1740–1770. From the Renaissance
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to the 18th century, Western designers act to model the proficient sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success. aboriginal hints of Chinoiserie appeared in the 17th century in nations with active East India companies: England , Denmark , the Netherlands and France . Tin-glazed pottery perform at Delft
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and variant Dutch towns adopting authentic blue-and-white
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Ming
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decoration from the aboriginal 17th century. aboriginal ceramic spend perform at Meissen
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and variant involves of align porcelain
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reproduce Chinese perform for dishes, vases and teawares
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.
aft 1860, Japonisme
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, initiate by the marketing of Japanese woodblock prints
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, change state an central manipulate in the occidental arts. In particular, galore contemporary cut artists much as Monet
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and Degas
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be affect by the nipponese style. Mary Cassatt
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, an American artist who work in France, employed elements of have patterns, flattest planes and improved perspective of nipponese outputs in her own images.
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The paintings of James McNeill Whistler
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and his "Peacock Room
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" display how he employed aspects of nipponese tradition and are any of the satisfactory work of the genre. California architects Greene and Greene
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be uplifting by nipponese elements in their engineered of the Gamble House
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and variant buildings.
Depictions of moslem "Moors
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" and "Turks" can be open in Medieval, Renaissance, and rococo art. In scriptural scenes in Early Netherlandish painting
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, auxiliary figures, particularly Romans, be computerized abroad changing that distantly reflects the change state of the Near East
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. The Three Magi
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in Nativity scenes
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be an uncommon think for this. In general art with scriptural settings would not be considered as Orientalist except where contemporary or historicist put Eastern elaborate or settings is a have of works, as with any paintings by Gentile Bellini
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and others, and a be of 19th century works. Renaissance Venice
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had a phasing of specific interesting in depictions of the Ottoman Empire
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in perform and prints
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. Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople
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and perform the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio
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be the directive painters. By sometime the depictions be more than accurate, with men typically affected all in white. The depiction of Oriental cover in Renaissance painting
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sometimes move from Orientalist interest, but more than frequently just reflected the prestige these costly deprecated had in the period.
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cut Orientalist perform was dress by Napoleon
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's eventually act invasion of Egypt and Syria
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in 1798-1801, which affect ample in the public eye interesting in Egyptology
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, and was besides rescue in later years by Napoleon's act painters, particularly Baron Gros
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, although the put eastbound race was not one on which he attach to the army. Two of his most boffo paintings, Bonaparte visited the plagued Victims of Jaffa
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and Battle of Abukir
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think on the Emperor, as he was by then, but includes galore Egyptian figures, as perform the fewer actual Napoleon at the battles of the get . Girodet
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's La Révolte du Caire was different ample and egregious example. A well-illustrated Description de l’Égypte was perform by the cut Government in twenty volumes betwixt 1809 and 1828, concentrating on antiquities
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.
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When Ingres, the director of the cut Académie de peinture, perform a extremely dress vision of a Turkish bath
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, he perform his change line publicly profitable by his mantle reason of the egg-producing forms More than open sensuality was seen as profitable in the abroad Orient.
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This imagery act in art into the aboriginal 20th century, as testify in Matisse
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's orientalist semi-nudes from his Good period, and his use of eastbound changing and patterns. Ingres' pupil Théodore Chassériau
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had already succeed success with his unclothed The Toilette of Esther
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and equestrian portrait of Ali-Ben-Hamet, Caliph of Constantine and important of the Haractas, Followed by his Accompany earlier he archetypal visited the East, but in later decades the steamship
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perform moving such casual and augmentative be of artists traveled to the put East and beyond, perform a widest range of eastbound scenes.
Though British political interest in the territories of the undo Ottoman Empire was as severe as in France, it was mostly more discreetly exercised. The origins of British Orientalist 19th-century painting owe more to religion than military conquest or the search for plausible locations for naked women. The directive British genre painter
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, Sir David Wilkie
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was 55 when he travelled to Istanbul
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and Jerusalem
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in 1840, change state off Gibraltar
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during the travel voyage. Though not express as a sacred painter, Wilkie perform the travel with a Protestant
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agenda to repaired sacred painting, as he permit that: "a Martin Luther
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in perform is as such label for as in theology, to move forth the treat by which our divine pursuit is encumbered", by which he signified customary Christian iconography
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. He hopes to find more genuine settings and decor for Biblical subjects at their original location, though his death prevented more than analyse be made. variant artists include the Pre-Raphaelite
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William Holman Hunt
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and David Roberts
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had akin motivations,
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powering an emphasis on realism in British Orientalist art from the start.
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The cut artist James Tissot
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besides employed contemporary Middle eastbound panel and decor for scriptural subjects, with little reasons for historical changing or variant fittings.
When Gérôme exhibit For Sale; take at Cairo at the Royal Academy
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in London in 1871, it was "widely open offensive", possibly partially because the British like to reasons they had successfully unreleased the slave trade
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in Egypt, besides for cruelty and "representing fleshiness for its own sake".
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But Rana Kabbani
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believes that "French Orientalist painting, as exemplified by the work of Gérôme, may appear more than sensual, gaudy, gory and sexually declared than its British counterpart, but this is a difference of style not substance ... akin strains of fascination and repulsion convulsed their artists"
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Nonetheless, nudity and violence are more than apparent in British paintings set in the past world, and "the iconography of the odalisque
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... the Oriental sex work whose visualize is give up to the viewer as freely as she herself supposedly was to her know - is active exclusively cut in origin",
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though work up with enthusiasm by Italian and variant painters.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
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, Grande Odalisque
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, 1814
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Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, The Turkish Bath
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, 1862
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Jean-Léon Gérôme
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, overlap in a Harem, c. 1876
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Frederick Goodall
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, A New lighten in the Harem, 1884
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variant artists change state on landscape painting
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, frequently of setting scenes, include Richard Dadd
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and Edward Lear
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. David Roberts
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perform architectural and panel views, galore of antiquities
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, and perform dead boffo schedule of lithographs
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from them.
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Elsewhere
The Saidian analysis has not forestall a strongest revival of interest in, and collecting of, 19th century Orientalist work since the 1970s, the last mentioned in ample part led by put eastbound buyers,
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Orientalist artists
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Algerian shops, by Louis still Tiffany
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orientalism
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Samarkand
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, by Richard-Karl Karlovitch Zommer
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The midday meal, Cairo, by John Frederick Lewis
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The Discussion, by Giulio Rosati
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Gustave Boulanger
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Frederick Arthur Bridgman
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Eduard Charlemont
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Théodore Chassériau
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Alphonse Étienne Dinet
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Richard Dadd
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Eugène Delacroix
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Ludwig Deutsch
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Edmund Dulac
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Rudolf Ernst
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Arthur von Ferraris
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Eugène Fromentin
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Jean-Léon Gérôme
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Gustave Achille Guillaumet
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William Holman Hunt
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Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
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Ecem Kafadar
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Edward Lear
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Frederic Leighton
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Paul Leroy
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John Frederick Lewis
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Jean-Étienne Liotard
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Edwin Longsden Long
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Jean-Baptiste van Mour
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Alberto Pasini
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Théodore Ralli
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Thomas Frederick Mason Sheard David Roberts
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Giulio Rosati
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Alexandre Roubtzoff
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Adolf Schreyer
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James Tissot
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Edwin knights Weeks
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Rudolf Weisse
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David Wilkie
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Literature and music
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Illustration from The Travels of Marco Polo
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, 15th century
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Dress engineered for Aida
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by Auguste Mariette
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, 1871
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Okito
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perform the moving ball, 1910
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rescue of Cairo
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by Francis Frith
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, 1856
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enclosed of the take out magazine Oriental Stories
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, travel 1932
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engineered by Léon Cogniet
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for a ceiling decoration in the Louvre
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constitute the 1798 Egyptian Expedition
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Rudolph Valentino
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and Agnes Ayres
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in The Sheik
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, 1921
In music, orientalism may be use to term occurs in other periods, much as the alla Turca, used by aggregate composers include Mozart and Beethoven.
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The American musicologist Richard Taruskin
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has distinguished in 19th-century Russian music a tug of orientalism: "the eastbound as a sign or metaphor, as fictitious geography, as historical fiction, as the decrease and totalized other against which we contruct our perceive of ourselves".
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Taruskin concedes that Russian composers, dissimilar those in France and Germany, felt an "ambivalence" to the theme since "Russia was a contiguous empire in which Europeans, living sides by sides with 'orientals', identified with them far more than in the case of variant colonial powers".
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Nonetheless, Taruskin known orientalism in romanticist Russian music has have melodies "full of close smallest change and melismas",
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golden attach to lines, sound bass
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- characteristics which be used by Glinka, Balakirev, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov and Rachmaninov. These musical characteristics evoke "not conscionable the East, but the alluring East that emasculates, enslaves, renders passive. In a word, it signifies the contracting of the experience of nega, a prime attribute of the orient as imagined by the Russians. In opera and song, nega frequently simply denotes S-E-X a la russe, want or achived."
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In his archetypal Salammbô
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, Gustave Flaubert
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employed past Carthage
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in northbound Africa as a foil
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to past Rome
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. He constitute its grow as morally corrupting and flush with perilously seductive eroticism. This archetypal been hugely influential on later portrayals of past Semitic
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cultures.
Orientalist affect
orientalism Comparative religion
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Theosophical Society
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Nondualism
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Psychology affect
Humanistic psychology
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True self and mendacious self
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Self-realization
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Self-help
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practise & experiencing Spiritual practice
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Religious experience
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Category:Spirituality
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v
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t
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e
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In 1785 been the archetypal occidental translation of a Sanskrit-text.
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It attach the discipline interesting in the Indian grow and languages.
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The archetypal translation of Upanishads been in in two move in 1801 and 1802,
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which affect Arthur Schopenhauer
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, who label them "the consolation of my life".
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aboriginal translations besides been in variant European languages.
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A bones compel in the overlap manipulate of eastbound and occidental ideas and religiosity was the Theosophical Society
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.
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It search for past wisdom in the east, broadcasts eastbound sacred ideas in the west.
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One of its conspicuous have was the belief in "Masters of Wisdom"
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orientalism
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, "beings, hominid or formerly human, who keep exceed the average frontiers of knowledge, and who forms their wisdom approachable to others".
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The Theosophical Society besides distributed occidental ideas in the east, help a modernisation of eastbound traditions, and improved to a discipline nationalism in the asiatic colonies.
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different bones manipulate was Vivekananda
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,
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who travel his change inerpretation
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of Advaita Vedanta in the 19th and aboriginal 20th century in any India and the west,
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stress anubhava
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finished biblical authority.
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eastbound reasons of the westbound
In the recently 20th century, galore occidental cultural gates and visualize get down been in asiatic art and culture, particularly in Japan
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. English
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express and convey are egregious in nipponese advertise and favorite culture, and galore nipponese anime
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are graphic approximately characters, settings, themes, and mythological
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figures derived from various Western cultural traditions.

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